Technical Reference

By Eliot

This page acts as a quick reference to the most important technical details of the main products in each category. It is primarily intended for quickly accessing several technical documents or comparing similar products by their main properties.

Additional details can be found in the linked product pages, and not all products are covered from each linked category.
This reference is a work in progress – not all information has been transferred yet. Sections with [table "name" not found /] are not yet complete. All information is taken from the relevant product pages, so can still be found there. If you would like a particular section focused on for this reference as a priority, or want something added or changed, feel free to mention it on the Technical Reference forum post.

Vehicles and Accessories


These vehicles offer high-performance at affordable prices. They use open-source electronics and software and offer plenty of expandability, making them perfect for inspections, research, and adventuring.
VehicleThrustersControl AxesDimensions        3D Models
BlueROV2 thumbnail
Vertical: 2
Horizontal: 4 (vectored)
Degrees of Freedom: 5

Vertical (up/down)
Lateral (left/right)
Yaw (turning)
Roll (lean side down)
Length: 457 mm
(18 in)

Width: 338 mm
(13.3 in)

Height: 254 mm
(10 in)
BLUEROV2-R4 (.zip)
BLUEROV2-R3 (.zip)
BLUEROV2-R1 (.zip)
BlueROV2 Heavy
BlueROV2 Heavy thumbnail
Vertical: 4
Horizontal: 4 (vectored)
Degrees of Freedom: 6

Vertical (up/down)
Lateral (left/right)
Yaw (turning)
Pitch (tilt nose)
Roll (lean side down)
Length: 457 mm
(18 in)

Width: 575 mm
(22.6 in)

Height: 254 mm
(10 in)
BlueROV2 Heavy 3D Model (GrabCAD)

Frames and Mounting

[table “frames-comp” not found /]

Thrusters, Actuators, and Lights


These thrusters use our patented flooded motor design, which makes them powerful, efficient, compact, and affordable. They use three-phase brushless motors optimized for underwater use, and are controlled by a sensorless brushless electronic speed controller (ESC). Bidirectional ESCs (like our BasicESC) can run a thruster both forwards and in reverse.
ThrusterElectricalMax Thrust  (FWD/REV)Propeller                     DimensionsWeight (w/ cable)3D Models
T500 thumbnail
Voltage: 7-24 volts

Max Current (Power):
@12V:  16.9 Amps (202 Watts)
@16V:  25.1 Amps (402 Watts)
@20V:  34.0 Amps (681 Watts)
@24V:  43.5 Amps (1044 Watts)
@12V:  6.0 / 4.0 kg f
@16V:  9.3 / 6.2 kg f
@20V:  13.0 / 8.5 kg f
@24V:  16.1 / 10.5 kg f
Material: Polycarbonate

Blades: 3

Diameter: 114.5 mm
160 mm

141 mm
Air: 1157 g

Water: TBD g
T200 thumbnail
Voltage: 7-20 volts

Max Current (Power):
@16V:  24 Amps (390 Watts)
@20V:  32 Amps (645 Watts)
@16V:  5.25 / 4.1 kg f
@20V:  6.7 / 5.05 kg f
Material: Polycarbonate

Blades: 3

Diameter: 76 mm
113 mm

100 mm
Air: 344 g

Water: 156 g
T200-THRUSTER-R1 (.zip)
[Retired] T100
T100 thumbnail
Voltage: 12 volts

Max Current (Power):
@12V:  11.5 Amps (130 Watts)
@12V:  2.36 / 1.82 kg fMaterial: Polycarbonate

Blades: 2

Diameter: 76 mm
101 mm

97 mm
Air: 295 g

Water: 120 g
T100-THRUSTER-R1 (.zip)

Speed Controllers (ESCs)

These bi-directional electronic speed controllers allow controlling brushless DC motors like those used in our thrusters. They are controlled by a servo-style PWM signal, where a pulse-width of 1100 μs corresponds to max reverse, 1900 μs max forward, and 1500 μs (+/- 25 μs of deadband) is stopped.
ESCsVoltageMax CurrentSignal VoltageUpdate Rate3D ModelsDocumentsFirmware          
Basic ESC
Basic ESC thumbnail
7-26 V (2-6S)30 A (depending on cooling)3.3-5 VMax: 400 Hz BESC30-R3 (.zip)
BLHeli_S Version 16.x manual (.pdf)
BLHeli_BRBasicESC-R_H_15-Rev.16.6-Multi_170921 (.ini)
BLHeli_S 16.6
Basic ESC 500
Basic ESC 500 thumbnail
7-26 V (2-6S)50 A (depending on cooling)3.3-5 V
[Retired] Blue ESC
6-22 VIn water: 35 A
In air: 25 A
PWM: 3.3-5 V
I2C: 5 V
50-400 Hz SimonK tgy


A gripper is a useful tool for picking up small objects, attaching recovery lines, or freeing a snagged tether. Other manipulators may be useful in cleaning, inspection, or repair tasks. See this forum post for some community-designed jaw alternatives.
GrippersJawPressure RatingPowerSignalWeight (w/ cable)Documents3D Models
Newton Gripper
Newton Gripper thumbnail
Grip (at tip): 97N

Grip (in middle): 124N

Opening: 62 mm
300 mSupply Voltage: 9 - 18 volts

Peak Current: 6 amps
PWM Voltage: 3.3 volts

PWM neutral: 1500 µs

PWM open: >1530 µs-1900 µs

PWM close: <1470 µs-1100 µs
Air: 524 g

Water: 267 g
Newton Gripper Mount Drilling Template (.pdf)
Brushed ESC Schematic (.pdf)

Lights and Indicators

These lights and indicators can help to see with a camera, or help to find and/or troubleshoot an enclosure.
LightsPowerLight3D ModelsDocuments
Lumen Subsea Light
Lumen Subsea Light thumbnail
Supply Voltage (Vin): 7 - 48 V

Peak Current: (15/Vin)  A
Brightness: exponential up to 1,500 lumens

Color temperature: 5,700 kelvin

Beam Angle: 135 degrees in water
Lumen Schematic (.pdf)
Subsea LED Indicator
Subsea LED Indicator thumbnail
Supply Voltage (Vin): 3 - 18 V (DC)
RED Indicator: 3-30 V (DC)

Peak Current: 30 mA
RED Indicator: 50 mA
Colors: White/Red/Green/Blue INDICATOR-ASM-R1 (.zip)

Enclosures, Buoyancy, and Ballast

Watertight Enclosures

These affordable configurable watertight enclosures are great for all kinds of marine robotics applications. Modular end-caps give you options, with clear and flat end-caps with holes for cable penetrators and sensors, and domes for cameras.

In the 3D Models, M refers to Metal (aluminium), and P refers to Plastic (acrylic or polycarbonate).

WORK IN PROGRESS (several products not yet/not fully transferred).

Product TypeSeriesMaterial(s)LengthsDepth RatingInner DiameterPenetrator Holes3D ModelsDocuments
Locking Enclosure Tube
2" Locking SeriesCast Acrylic /

Precision machined ends
100mm (3.9")

150mm (5.9")

300mm (11.8")
Aluminum: 950m

Aluminum: 50.0±0.5 mm

Acrylic: 49.5±1.5 mm
WTE2-LOCKING Tubes (.pdf)
O-Ring Flange2" Locking Series6061-T6 AluminumInside Tube: 15.5mm

Outside Tube: 6mm
Flange Caps / End Caps2" Locking SeriesAluminum /
Cast Acrylic

Polycarbonate (dome retaining ring)
Flange Caps: see Flange

Dome: 20.5mm

Flat Acrylic: 6.35mm
Flat Acrylic: 600m

Dome / Flange Caps: 950m
Flange Caps: see Flange

Dome: 35.95mm
0 / 2 / 4
WTE2-LOCKING End Caps and Flange Caps (.pdf)
O-Rings2" Locking SeriesNitrile Rubber (NBR70)N/AN/AFace Seal: AS568-030
Radial Seal: AS568-030
O-Rings2" SeriesNitrile Rubber (NBR70)N/AN/AFace Seal: AS568-030
Radial Seal: AS568-133
Enclosure Tube

3" SeriesCast Acrylic /
End Caps3" SeriesAluminum /
Cast Acrylic

Polycarbonate (dome retaining ring)
0 / 4 / 7
3" SeriesNitrile Rubber (NBR70)N/AN/AFace Seal: AS568-148
Radial Seal: AS568-230
Enclosure Tube

4" SeriesCast Acrylic /
End Caps4" SeriesAluminum /
Cast Acrylic

Polycarbonate (dome retaining ring)
0 / 5 / 10 / 14 / 18
4" SeriesNitrile Rubber (NBR70)N/AN/AFace Seal: AS568-154
Radial Seal: AS568-238
Enclosure Tube
6" SeriesCast Acrylic298mm (11.75")65 m154.40 ± 0.30 mmN/A
End Caps6" SeriesAluminum /
Cast Acrylic
0 / 5 / 15
6" SeriesNitrile Rubber (NBR70)N/AN/AFace Seal: AS568-162
Radial Seal: AS568-432
Enclosure Tube
8" SeriesCast Acrylic298mm (11.75")40 mN/A
End Caps8" SeriesAluminum /
Cast Acrylic
0 / 5 / 25
8" SeriesNitrile Rubber (NBR70)N/AN/AFace Seal: AS568-170
Radial Seal: AS568-442

Buoyancy and Ballast

[table “buoyancy-ballast-comp” not found /]

Sensors, Sonars, and Cameras


A camera allows the pilot to see and record from the vehicle's point of view. If paired with a Camera Tilt Mount or other gimbal it can be moved during operation.
CameraLens                     Sensor                    Video StreamAudio        ElectricalWeight3D ModelsDocuments
Low-Light HD USB Camera
Low-Light HD USB Camera thumbnail

Sony Exmor IMX322 / IMX323
M12 x 0.5

Field of View:
80° (H) x 64° (V)

Focal Length:
2.97 mm
Format: 1/2.9"

Pixel Size:
2.8µm (H) x 2.8µm (V)

Minimum Illumination:
0.01 lux
Standards: 240p15 - 1080p30

Formats: H.264 / MJPEG / YUV2(YUYV)
single-channel, 44.1 kHz, Linear-PCM (L16)Supply Voltage: 5 V

Max Current: 220 mA
w/ cable: 17g

w/o cable: 13.5g
CAM-USB-WIDE-R1 (.zip) IMX322 Datasheet (.pdf)
IMX323 Datasheet (.pdf)
[Retired] Analog Low-Light Camera
Analog Low-Light Camera thumbnail

Sony Super HAD ICX810 / ICX811
Field of View:
128° (H) x 96° (V)

Focal Length:
2.1 mm
Format: 1/3"

Pixel Size:
5.0µm (H) x
7.4µm (V-NTSC)
6.25µm (V-PAL)

Minimum Illumination: 0.0003 lux
Standard: 700 TVL

Formats: NTSC or PAL
N/ASupply Voltage: 12 V

Max Current: 120 mA
CAM-ANALOG-R1 (.zip) ICX810 / ICX811 Details (Wayback)

Leak Sensor

Leak sensors help to detect and warn about if a leak occurs, before it gets to and damages the electronics in an enclosure.
SensorElectricalSignalWeight3D ModelsDocuments
SOS Leak Sensor
SOS Leak Sensor thumbnail
Voltage: 3.3 - 5 V

Max Current: 20 mA
Digital, normally LOW
(leak pulls HIGH)
w/ cable and 2 probes: <10 g SOS-ASM-LEAK-SENSOR-R1 (.zip) SOS-LEAK-SENSOR-SCHEMATIC (.pdf)


These sonars can be used for navigation, acoustic imaging, and depth profiling. They communicate using the Ping Protocol.
SonarsPressure RatingRangeSignal Protocol(s)Profiling?Scanning?Estimates Distance?FrequencyWeight3D ModelsCode LibrariesMessage Subsets
Ping360 thumbnail
300 m /
984 ft
0.75 m - 50 m /
2.5 ft - 165 ft

Resolution: 0.08% of range
USB, Ethernet (UDP), RS485Yes1.6 mm

Resolution: 4.1 cm

Speed: depends on interface and selected range.
NoWLP-M10-4.5MM-LCAir (w/ cable): 300 m / 984 ft
Water (w/ cable): 0-30°C / 32-86°F
Python, C++, Arduinocommon, ping360
Ping Sonar
Ping Sonar thumbnail
300 m /
984 ft
0.5 m - 70 m (50 m typically usable) /
1.6 ft - 230 ft (164 ft typically usable)

Resolution: 0.5% of range
TTL Serial (UART)YesNoYes115 kHzAir (w/ cable): 133 g / 4.69 oz
Water (w/ cable): 55 g / 1.94 oz
ArduPilot (limited), Python, C++, Arduinocommon, ping1d

Temperature and Pressure/Depth Sensors

These sensors have an M10x1.5 thread for mounting, and a face-seal o-ring to prevent water ingress.
SensorsOperating DepthRegular MaintenancePressure ResolutionPressure AccuracyWet Operating TemperatureTemperature AccuracyArduSub Compatible?Documents3D ModelsCode Libraries
Bar 100
Bar 100 thumbnail

Keller 7LD - PA
0 - 1020m /
0 - 3345 ft
N/A3 mbar (3cm in fresh water) /
0.045 psi (0.1 ft in fresh water)
± 500 mbar (5.1 m in freshwater) /
± 7.25 psi (16.75 ft in freshwater)
-40°C to 110°C /
-40°F to 230°F
± 2°C (between 0 to 50°C) /
± 3.6°F
Yes Keller 7LD-PA Datasheet (PDF)
Keller Communication Protocol 4LD-9LD (PDF)
Bar100 Schematic (PDF)
Bar100 Pressure Sensor (.zip)
Bar100 Penetrator Nut (.zip)
Bar 30
Bar 30 thumbnail

0 - 300m /
0 - 990 ft
Daily drying.2 mbar (2 mm in fresh water)± 200 mbar (204 cm in fresh water) /
± 2.9 psi (6.69 ft in fresh water)
2 to 40°C /
35.6 to 104°F
± 1.5°C (between 0 to 60°C) /
± 2.7°F
Yes MS5837-30BA Data Sheet (PDF)
Bar30 Schematic (PDF)
PENETRATOR-M-NUT-10-8-R2 (.zip)
MS5837 Arduino,
MS5837 Python,
MS5xxx ArduPilot
Bar 02
Bar 02 thumbnail

10m /
33 ft
Daily drying.016 mbar (.16 mm in fresh water, 13cm in air at sea level)± 4 mbar (4 cm in fresh water) /
± .06 psi (1.6 inches in fresh water)
2 to 40°C /
35.6 to 104°F
± 2°C (between -20 to +85°C) /
± 3.6°F
No MS5837-02BA Data Sheet (PDF)
Bar30/Bar02 Schematic (PDF)
PENETRATOR-M-NUT-10-8-R2 (.zip)
MS5837 Arduino,
MS5837 Python
Celsius thumbnail

0 - 975m /
0 - 3200 ft
N/AN/AN/A-40 to +125°C /
-40 to 257°F
± 0.1°C (between -5 to 50°C) /
± 0.18°F
± 0.5°C (between -40 to 125°C) /
± 0.9°F
Yes TSYS01 Datasheet (PDF)
Celsius Temperature Sensor Schematic (PDF)
PENETRATOR-M-NUT-10-8-R2 (.zip)
TSYS01 Arduino,
TSYS01 Python,
TSYS01 ArduPilot

Cables, Penetrators, and Connectors

Cables and Tethers

[table “cables-comp” not found /]


[table “connectors-comp” not found /]


[table “penetrators-comp” not found /]

Tether Management

[table “tether-management-comp” not found /]

Communication, Control, and Power

Power Supplies, Batteries, and Chargers

[table “power-comp” not found /]

Interface Electronics

[table “interfaces-comp” not found /]

Flight Controller Boards

The autopilot board/flight controller board processes the pilot input and sensor data, and controls the motors, lights, servos, and relays on the vehicle.
Flight ControllerElectricalArduSub FirmwareOnboard SensorsInterfaces                                        Physical                    3D ModelsDocuments
Thruster Commander
Thruster Commander thumbnail
Supply Voltage:
7 - 20 V
N/AN/A2x analog inputs for speed/direction or left/right control
4x PWM outputs (2 paired channels)
Navigator thumbnail
Supply Voltage:
5–5.35 V (Main input)
5–5.35 V (Power module connector)
5–5.35 V (Aux input)

5 mA (Idle)
150 mA (Typical)
200 mA (Max)
>= 4.1.0IMU:  ICM-20602 (6-axis)
Magnetometer:  MMC5983
Compass:  AK09915
Barometer:  BMP280
ADC:  ADS1115
3 x Serial UART (no flow control)
2 x I2C
1 x UART + I2C
1 x ADC (3.3 V)
1 x ADC (6.6 V)
1 x RC receiver
1 x Power module connector
16 Channel PWM out
2 x SOS leak probe connectors
1 x Auxiliary SOS board connector
1 x PWM out (fan)
1 x RGB LED header
3 x User definable LEDs
Weight: 26 g

65 x 56 mm

All sensor and IC datasheets are linked in technical details.

[End of Life]
Pixhawk thumbnail
Supply Voltage:
4.8 - 5.4 V
AnyGyro:  L3GD20H (16 bit)
Accel / Mag:  LSM303D (14 bit)
Accel / Gyro:  MPU 6000 (3-axis)
Barometer:  MS5611
1x I2C
1x CAN (2x optional)
1x ADC
4x UART (2x with flow control)
1x Console
8x PWM with manual override
6x PWM / GPIO / PWM input
1x S.BUS / PPM / Spektrum input
1x S.BUS output
Weight: 38 g

50x81.5x15.5 mm
Pixhawk 1 Flight Controller Specifications (Dronecode)
Schematic and Layout (.pdf)
Pixhawk 4
Pixhawk 4 thumbnail
Supply Voltage:
4.1 - 5.7 V
>= 4.1.0Accel / Gyro:  ICM-20689
Accel / Gyro:  BMI055 or ICM20602
Magnetometer:  IST8310
Barometer: MS5611
8-16x PWM outputs
3x PWM/Capture inputs
1x R/C input for CPPM
1x R/C input for Spektrum / DSM and S.Bus with analog / PWM RSSI input
1x S.Bus servo output
3x I2C
4x SPI
2x CAN
2x inputs for battery voltage / current
Weight: 15.8 g

44x84x12 mm
Pixhawk 4 Flight Controller Specifications (Dronecode)

Onboard Computers

[table “onboard-computers-comp” not found /]

Software and Firmware

Software Applications

We develop or contribute to these softwares. They can be used to operate/configure our equipment/products.
InstallationRuns OnMajor FunctionalitiesCode RepositoryDocumentation Links
QGroundControl thumbnail
- Current: 4.2.3
- Previous: 4.1.7
BlueROV2 Software SetupSurface Computer - connects to the vehicle
- allows controlling via a joystick
- displays vehicle telemetry and a video stream, and allows recording
- allows setting autopilot parameters
mavlink/ qgroundcontrol- ArduSub-specific QGC Docs
- Official QGC Docs
Ping Viewer
Ping Viewer thumbnail
2.3.4Ping Viewer Quick StartSurface Computer- can display Ping Altimeter and Echosounder (Ping1D) and Ping360 Scanning Imaging Sonar outputs
- allows configuring device/scanning settings
- allows updating Ping1D firmware
- allows replaying previous scans
bluerobotics/ ping-viewer- Official Ping Viewer Docs
[Replaces Companion Software]
- Stable: 1.0.1
- Beta: 1.1.0-beta4
ArduSub BlueOS 1.0 InstallationOnboard Computer
(Raspberry Pi 3B, Raspberry Pi 4B,
+more to come)
- relays communication between the autopilot board and control software
- allows USB connection forwarding, including Ping devices and multiple video streams
- provides a web interface for configuration and monitoring system performance and service statuses
- allows users to make custom device/sensor integrations
bluerobotics/ BlueOS-docker- ArduSub BlueOS 1.0
[End of Life]
Companion Software
0.0.31ArduSub Installing CompanionCompanion Computer
(Raspberry Pi 3B)
- relays communication between the autopilot board and control software
- allows USB connection forwarding, including Ping devices and a video stream
- provides a web interface for configuration and monitoring system performance and service statuses
- allows users to make custom device/sensor integrations
bluerobotics/ companion- ArduSub Required Software
- ArduSub Companion Web Interface

Device Firmwares

These device firmwares power our devices.
FirmwareRecommended Version(s)InstallationRuns OnMajor FunctionalitiesCode RepositoryDocumentation Links
ArduSub thumbnail
- Stable: 4.1.0
- Development: 4.2.0
ArduSub FirmwareAutopilot Computer
(e.g. Pixhawk)
- ArduPilot Documentation
BLHeli_S16.6Basic ESC R3 Firmware Files and CustomisationBasic ESC- allows bi-directional control of a sensorless brushless DC motor
- forward, stop, or reverse rotation depending on PWM pulse-duration (stops at 1500±25 µs)
- variable rotation speed (max reverse 1100 µs, max forward 1900 µs)
- built in thermal protection and stall protection
- motor phase detection and ESC arming beeps
- regenerative braking
- also supports control via Oneshot125, Oneshot42, Multshot, Dshot150, Dshot300, and Dshot600
BLHeli_S Version 16.x manual
Brushed ESCN/Aavrdude installer scriptNewton Subsea Gripper- allows bidirectional control of a brushed DC motor
- forward, stop, or reverse rotation depending on PWM pulse duration (stops at 1500±30 µs)
- automatic motor stall detection
- single rotation speed
Ping3.28_autoPing Viewer Firmware UpdatePing Altimeter and Echosounder- enables sonar profiling with a variable range and ping rate
- includes distance estimation algorithm with confidence measure
- variable sensor gain
- allows setting speed of sound
- supports 'common' and 'ping1d' message subsets of Ping Protocol
- serial communication, with 115200 or 9600 baudrate
- Ping Protocol: Ping1D
- Ping Viewer: Ping1D
Ping3603.1.1-Ping360 Scanning Imaging Sonar- enables multi-directional sonar scanning and profiling, with a variable range and ping rate
- provides low-level device control including sensor gain, transmit duration, sample period, and samples per profile
- supports 'common' and 'ping360' subsets of Ping Protocol
- serial/USB/ethernet communication options
-- Ping Protocol: Ping360
- Ping Viewer: Ping360
H6 Pro- Default (limited): V1.0
- Full: V1.0.11
H6 Pro Charger Firmware Unlock GuideH6 Pro Lithium Battery ChargerLimited Firmware:
- allows balancing high capacity lithium batteries, and charging to full or storage levels
- supports internal discharging to storage level
Full Firmware:
- allows balancing and charging a variety of battery types, at custom rates and to custom levels
- supports internal, external and regenerative discharging
- multi-function port can test servos, measure PWM, and provide PPM signals
-HOTA H6 PRO Full Manual



Eliot is the Community Manager / Applications Engineer at Blue Robotics. He has a background in robotics and computer vision, and loves to help discover and share knowledge. You can find him on our forums as EliotBR.